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It is the wish of everyone to live a happy and free life in a country where they get equal opportunity and thereby secure a better future for themselves and their families. There are not many nations that can guarantee such political and economical freedom that Australia can to immigrants. For this reason, many migrants would find immigrating to Australia an attractive solution to their problems. With pros such as the freedom and egalitarian society weighing up, its no surprise most people don’t have second thoughts about the cons such as the long distances. The large numbers of immigrants entering Australia in the past as well as the present is evidence of this. According to statistics, immigrants arriving from white European regions during the post WW II period range between 1-300 000 people. Numbers arriving from other regions of the world, although quite large, are insignificant compared to Europeans. Most of these migrants have settled in urban areas although some have decided to begin their new life in the country.
Although the arrival of most immigrants is for personal reasons, it is no doubt also a benefit to the development of Australia in many ways. Australia’s society is ethnically diverse and their presence is as important to us as we are to them. Recent migration has plunged in number quite significantly due to the strong requirements placed in the law for immigrants wanting to come to Australia. There are categories in place such as skill-based migration, family PR in Australia, business migration and others, but all these require the migrants to prove they will be economically stable after arriving in Australia.
There are two main factors that influence migration. Firstly the push factors, secondly the pull factors. The push factors are the reasons forcing a migrant to leave their country of birth. These can include various reasons, the common factors being civil war, causing distress or threate...
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Objective: To explore the effects of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) on migration, proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Methods: MSCs were obtained from Sprague-Dawley rats by a combination of gradient centrifugation and cell culture techniques and treated with IGF-1 at concentrations of 5–20 ng/ml. Proliferation of MSCs was determined as the mean doubling time. Expression of CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) and migration property were determined by flow cytometry and transwell migration essay, respectively. mRNA expression of GATA-4 and collagen II was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: The mean doubling time of MSC proliferation was decreased, and the expression of CXCR4 on MSCs and migration of MSCs were increased by IGF-1, all in a dose-dependent manner, while the optimal concentration of IGF-1 on proliferation and migration was different. IGF-1 did not affect the expression of GATA-4 or collagen II mRNA. Conclusions: IGF-1 dose-dependently stimulated the proliferation of MSCs, upregulated the expression of CXCR4, and accelerated migration. There was no apparent differentiation of MSCs to cardiomyocytes or chondrocytes after culturing with IGF-1 alone.
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